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Prescription Drug Addiction

Everything You Need to Know About LSD

Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is sold on the street under names such as Blotter, Dots, Trips, and acid. The designs on the blotter paper also influence the name, such as Purple Dragon. LSD is an odorless, colorless, bitter tasting synthetic drug that has been around since the 1930s. It is a potent hallucinogen and is manufactured from lysergic acid found in ergot (a fungus) on rye and grains. LSD is diluted as a liquid for oral use or produced in a crystalline form that is mixed with excipients.

The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NHSDA) in 2010 estimated that more than 6 percent of surveyed adults ages 18 to 25 used LSD at some point of their lives. This number was down significantly from 16 percent in 2002, however. For youth, the rate of LSD use during the last month is less than 1 percent.

LSD Uses and Effects

LSD is usually taken as a recreational drug, entheogen, or for psychedelic therapy. It has been used by psychiatrists who value the therapeutic effects in the treatment of cluster headaches, alcoholism, to enhance creativity, and for spiritual purposes. Also, LSD can help a patient to “unblock” subconscious repressed memories, leading to benefits in psychotherapy.

LSD effects are unpredictable, and use is considered to be an experience or “trip.” When it’s not pleasant, it’s considered a “bad trip,” versus a “good trip” when all goes well. These “trips” can last for up to 12 hours, and the first effects of the drug are experienced approximately 30 to 60 minutes once it is used.

The user will have varying emotions, mood swings, extreme changes in mood, impaired depth and time perceptions, and distorted perception regarding movements, shapes, colors, sound, body image, and touch. If taken for an extended period of time, the drug produces hallucinations and delusions. LSD causes physical changes also, such as high body temperature, dilated pupils, sweating, nausea, increased blood sugar, elevated heart rate, high blood pressure, dry mouth, tremors, and sleeplessness.

LSD Health Hazards

LSD use makes a person lose the ability to make sound judgments and view danger. After using LSD, a person suffers depression and/or anxiety, and may also experience flashbacks, which are re-experiences of the “trip days or months after consuming the last dose. If a flashback suddenly occurs, it is often without warning, and the hallucinogens are more common in a chronic LSD user or those with an underlying personality disorder. Healthy individuals who occasionally use LSD also have flashbacks and bad trips. In addition, LSD produces tolerance, and users need to take larger and larger amounts to achieve a state of intoxication. This, however, is a dangerous way to use LSD, as it is an unpredictable drug.

LSD is not seriously addictive, as it does not lead to compulsive drug-seeking behavior. Addiction to hallucinogens is quite a rate but does occur. Because LSD produces a tolerance, some users report that they need to take higher doses each time. Also, LSD is illegal and possessing it leads to disciplinary consequences, fines, and heavy prison sentences.

First 6-Month Implant to Treat Opioid Addiction

The Psychopharmacologic Drugs Advisory Committee (PDAC) of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) voted 12 to 6 for the approval of Probuphine implant for treating opioid addiction. Probuphine is the first long-acting subdermal buprenorphine implant that delivers 8 mg or less per day of the drug to the patient.

At the recent meeting, doctors presented efficacy data from a recent clinical study confirming Probuphine’s effectiveness as a 6-month maintenance treatment for opioid dependence. Several sensitivity analyses were presented at the meeting, and the FDA evaluated the results that favored Probuphine. In addition, safety findings showed how insertion and removal procedures were safe.

What are Opioids?

Opioids are a class of drugs that include licit prescription pain relievers, as well as the illicit drug heroin. Commonly abused opioids include oxycodone, fentanyl, codeine, hydrocodone, and morphine. Opioids interact with opioid receptors that lie on the nerve cells of the brain tissue. These receptors produce pleasurable effects when activated, relieving pain.

Drug Rehab San DiegoHow Common is Addiction?

Addiction is a chronic, primary, and relapsing brain disease characterized by a person pursuing reward and relief by using substances. Around 21.5 million Americans have a substance use disorder, and of these individuals, almost 2 million use prescription pain relievers. In addition, 586,000 people use heroin, with 23% of these individuals developing an opioid addiction.

Drug overdose is now the leading cause of accidental death in the United States. According to recent data, there are around 19,000 overdose deaths related to prescription pain medicines each year, and approximately 10,500 overdose deaths are related to heroin annually.

How does Probuphine Work?

Probuphine offers the best chance of individuals with opioid addiction to reach recovery goals. This new treatment is a real option for millions of patients and their families who suffer from opioid addiction. Probuphine provides maintenance treatment continuously for 6 months, decreases the risk of diversion, eliminates the need to visit the clinic frequently, and improves people’s quality of life.

Probuphine is merely a small rod that contains buprenorphine, which is a medication approved by the FDA for opioid addiction. The rod is positioned under the skin of the upper arm in a simple office procedure. The implant delivers a daily dose of medication to the patient without the need for taking pills or injections.

Addiction RecoveryWhat are the Potential Benefits of Using Buprenorphine?

The buprenorphine implant has several benefits. These include:

  • You do not have to worry about taking a pill every day.
  • You will not experience the side effects of Suboxone, such as the awful taste.
  • You won’t have to worry about the medication being stolen, lost, or sold.
  • If you have to go to jail or attend rehab, the implant will continue working, so there is no chance of withdrawal or interruption in treatment.
  • The treatment is more effective than short-term detoxification followed by maintenance medicines.

What is involved in the Treatment Program?

The Probuphine 6-month implant is used as a part of a complete treatment program that includes psychological support and counseling. Probuphine consists of 4 one-inch-long rods that are implanted beneath the skin of the upper arm. The doctor administering the medication is specially trained for the surgical insertion and removal procedure. The doctor must become certified through the Probuphine Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) program.

Is the Probuphine Implant Safe?

In a recent randomized clinical trial, the safety and efficacy of Probuphine were demonstrated. The participants were adults who met strict clinical criteria for opioid dependence. This was measured using self-reporting illicit opioid use and urine screening. Of the participants, 64% had no evidence of opioid use throughout the six months of evaluation and implant treatment.

 

Resources:

American Society of Addiction Medicine (2016). Opioid Addiction.

Food and Drug Administration (2016). FDA approves first buprenorphine implant for treatment of opioid dependence.

Rural America and Prescription Drug Addiction

Rural America is the heartland of our great country. In rural America, you have coal mining, corn fields, cattle ranches, vegetable farms, steel mill work, and now, prescription drug addiction. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), rural America is being hit hard with prescription drug addiction, with an estimated 2.1 million people suffering from some type of prescription drug abuse and addiction in 2012 alone.

The National Institutes of Health reports that prescription drug addiction has been plaguing rural America for the last 2 decades. The abuse to heroin and prescription pain relievers affects 36 million people worldwide. The number of unintentional overdose deaths has soared in the U.S., thanks to prescription drugs. Based on data from NIDA, the number of overdose deaths has quadrupled in the last 15 years, since OxyContin burst on the scene in 1998.

Scope and Impact of Prescription Opioid Drug Use

To address the complex problem of prescription opioid abuse in the U.S., researchers analyzed the special characteristics of this phenomenon. NIDA evaluated the negative and growing impact of prescription drug abuse on health and mortality, but also assessed the fundamental role played by prescription opioids in healing and relieving human suffering. Prescription opioids fall into one of three broad categories, with the other prescription drugs abused being central nervous system depressants (Xanax, Valium, and Klonopin) and stimulants (Adderall, Concerta, and Ritalin).

Several factors contribute to the severity of America’s current prescription drug addiction and abuse problem. These factors have helped create the “environmental availability” of prescription drugs, particularly opioids. These factors include:

  • Increases in the number of prescriptions written
  • Aggressive marketing by pharmaceutical companies
  • Greater social acceptance for using prescription medications

The Cold, Hard Drug Facts

The total number of opioid painkillers prescribed in the U.S. have increased over the last 25 Oxycodoneyears. In 1991, only 76 million prescriptions of hydrocodone and oxycodone were written. Zoom in to 2015, there were 207 million hydrocodone and oxycodone prescriptions written in America. This accounts for around 90% of the world’s hydrocodone scripts and 81% of oxycodone scripts.

Based on data from NIDA, emergency departments (EDs or ERs) are dispensing more prescription pain medicines also. In 2008, the number of visits for nonmedical use of opioid analgesics increased to 306,000 up from 145,000 in 2004 (that’s 156,000 more visits per year).Overdose deaths related to prescription painkillers have tripled in the last two decades, with 16,650 in 2010 alone. By 2002, death certificates listing opioid poisoning as the cause of death were more common than cocaine or heroin.

Crushing, Snorting, Injecting, and Combining

Opioid prescription drugs, as well as stimulants and benzodiazepines, can be crushed and snorted for a faster “high.” Certain pure drugs, like morphine or oxycodone, can be mixed with water and injected into the veins. These drugs are more dangerous when snorted or injected. In addition, the drugs can be combined with alcohol for a stronger, more intense euphoria.

Rural Americans have turned visiting the doctor into hillbilly gold, as doctor shopping, obtaining scripts to sell, and visiting random ERs has become a common thing. More than 100 million people have chronic pain in the U.S., but for many of these people, the drugs are stolen, sold, or misused. Experts have long debated the use of prescription opioids for chronic pain relief. Because the problem has become an epidemic, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed specific prescribing guidelines for doctors to follow.

Pacific Bay Recovery offers top prescription drug rehab in San Diego with success rates that are very high. Most insurance is accepted, call us today!

Hooked: Statistics on Prescription Narcotic Use/Abuse

America is “hooked.” Not on soda pop. Not on daytime TV. Not even on phonics. Americans are starting to use prescription narcotics at increased rates, up 400% over the last 10 years. These drugs include painkillers, stimulants, benzodiazepines, and barbiturates.

Hook, Line, and a Sinking America

In the U.S., 2,500 youth ages 12 to 17 abuse a prescription pain medicine for the first time. Prescription drug use is more prevalent in the U.S. than other countries. In America, more Oxycodonethan 15 million people abuse prescription drugs each year, which is more than all other drugs combined. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, in 2015, more than 2.6 million Americans abused prescription drugs for the first time.

According to a 2007 survey, 3.3% of 12- to 17-year olds used or abused a prescription drug during the past 30 days. Of those aged 18- to 25-year old, 6% reported using a prescription drug in the past month. Prescription drug abuse also caused a large percentage of deaths in America, based on 2005 statistics. Of the 22,400 drug overdose deaths, 38% were related to opioid painkillers.

Teenage Wasteland

America is becoming a teenage wasteland, according to statistics from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). In 2005, 4,4 million teens in the U.S. admitted to using prescription opioid painkillers. In addition, 2.3 million teens reported that they took a prescription stimulant, such as Adderall or Ritalin. Another 2.2 million youth admitted to abusing over-the-counter cough syrup, many trying it as young as 13 years of age.

In a U.S survey, almost 50% of teens reported that they thought prescription drugs were safer than illegal street drugs. Around 65% of teens surveyed said that they found prescription drugs in their families’ home medicine cabinets. The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University found that teens who abuse prescription drugs were twice as likely to drink alcohol, and were five times more likely to smoke marijuana. In addition, teens who start taking prescription drugs are 20 times more likely to turn to heroin, cocaine, and Ecstasy.

Dying to Be High

dual diagnosis treatmentAccording to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, opioids, depressants, and antidepressants are responsible for 45% of all overdose deaths. Prescription stimulants and cocaine account for 39% of all overdose deaths in the U.S. Also, in America, the most overdose deaths occur in inner cities in Black neighborhoods, but overdose deaths are on the rise in White rural communities. Of the 1.4 million drug-related hospital ER admissions in 2005, almost 600,000 were associated with prescription narcotics.

In 2007, the powerful prescription narcotic fentanyl killed more than 1,000 people, according to the Drug Enforcement Agency. This drug is 50 times more powerful than heroin, and 100 times more deadly. People are stealing it from cancer patients, pharmacies, and hospitals, and chewing the gel lining that is supposed to be time-released when applied to the skin.

Most Commonly Abused Prescription Narcotics

The number one most commonly abused prescription narcotic is the opioid drugs, such as oxycodone, hydrocodone, morphine, and hydromorphone. These drugs are usually given after a major injury or surgery, but are also prescribed for chronic pain. Another commonly abused prescription drug class is the central nervous system depressants, which are called tranquilizers or sedatives (Xanax, Valium, Seconal, and Neurontin). When taken with alcohol, CNS depressants can lead to overdose deaths due to respiratory depression.

In a study conducted at the University of Michigan, hydrocodone (Vicodin) was the top prescription drug abused among high schoolers. This study found that it represented 8% of all drugs used, but stimulants rated at 6.5%. Teens have access to stimulants, because they are often given in this age group for attention deficit disorder (ADD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). These drugs, when abused, produced a high, but they also lead to rapid heart rate, high blood pressure, and major anxiety.

Pacific Bay Recovery offers first rate treatment for prescription drug abuse at a top notch facility in San Diego. Success rates are impressive, with long term success being over 80%! Call us today for your best option for prescription drug rehab in Southern California.

Resources

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2017). Therapeutic drug use. Retrieved from:  https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/drug-use-therapeutic.htm

National Institute on Drug Abuse (2017). Drug-related hospital emergency room visits. Retrieved from:  https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/drug-related-hospital-emergency-room-visits

National Institute on Drug Abuse (2017). Nationwide trends. Retrieved from: https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/nationwide-trends

Medical Marijuana: A Safer Solution to Opioids?

Drug overdose is a major problem in the United States. Illicit and prescription drug abuse have plagued our country for years, and now, the statistics apply to professional athletes. In a recent survey of more than 150 NFL players, use of chemical opioids was extremely common and encouraged by some league physicians. The addiction qualities of opioid painkillers are basically a Russian Roulette for some pain sufferers, however.

The Problem

Opioids are a class of drugs that include prescription pain relievers and heroin. These drugs act on the opioid receptors in the brain to produce a pleasurable effect along with pain relief. More than 20 million Americans had some type of substance use disorder in 2015, and opioid addiction is causing many overdose deaths. The opioid overdose death rate in 2008 was four times what it was in 1999, and there were 20,000 deaths due to prescription opioids in 2015 alone.

According to the 2017 survey involving current and former NFL players, 91% said they had taken an opiate-based pain reliever. In addition, almost half of those surveyed said they felt pressure by teammates, staff, and even team doctors to use a chemical substance for pain. Many players admitted to recreational use of opioids after they first took them by prescription.

The Cause

Opioids are the fastest and strongest form of pain management available to NFL players. The NFL physicians can injection painkillers directly to the affected region for quick pain relief, which permits the player to go right back to the field. These opioids have a laundry list of side effects, however. They can cause dizziness, confusion, nausea, vomiting, and respiratory depression. In addition, they are extremely addictive, with 70% of NFL players reporting being concerned to an unhealthy dependence on the drugs.

In 2012, the NFL Players Association had an injury data analysis conducted. They found that there was an increase of 1,302 total injuries from 2010 to 2011. In 2011 alone, there were 4,493 minor injuries in the NFL, which included the start of training camp through the Super Bowl. In addition, there was a 17% increase in moderate injuries, which means the player was out of action for 8-21 days.  

An Alternative Solution

The nation’s largest medical marijuana online marketplace, BudTrader.com, conducted a lengthy study regarding NFL players and opioid addiction potential. The study evolved after the marketplace’s CEO, Brad McLaughlin, was notified of the problem by former NFL player Marvin Washington. According to the report, Washington is an advocated for a safer form of pain management: use of medical marijuana. Washington believes professional football players could benefit from the unique compounds found in marijuana, which protect the brain against pain and inflammation.

According to the NFL survey, 89% of NFL players felt that medical marijuana was a safe alternative to treating injury pain. These players said that fewer chemical opioids would be used if they had access to medical marijuana. According to authorities, this would call for major policy reform within the league. The NFLPA plans to make medical cannabis a priority in the future, however.

Pacific Bay Recovery offers top rehab in Southern California for prescription and illicit drugs. Success rates are very high and most insurance is accepted, call  us today!

Resources

Alternet (2017). Recent Poll Shows NFL Players Are Increasingly Concerned About Opioid Use and Addiction. Retrieved from: http://www.alternet.org/drugs/nfl-players-are-increasingly-concerned-about-opioids

American Society of Addiction Medicine (2016). Opioid Addiction. Retrieved from: http://www.asam.org/docs/default-source/advocacy/opioid-addiction-disease-facts-figures.pdf

90-Day Treatment Plan for Addiction in San Diego

This is a longer term commitment for those heavily addicted to drug and/ or alcohol who may need more time to get sober from their years of long term abuse of alcohol and drugs. These addicts have developed habits that they need to learn how to break and re-learn new healthy ones to replace them with the assistancealcohol rehab san diego  from the addiction professionals and counselors in the program to teach you how to stay clean and sober for the long term life recovery.

Most all 90 day plans have an inpatient or outpatient program but the inpatient programs have a higher chance of success.  Most outpatients plans are designed for the addicted individual who cannot leave there current obligations for this extended amount of time.

The longer plan is designed for the recovering drug addict or alcoholic to build a long term foundation for their life being sober. Many that have failed with sobriety and relapsed during the 30 and 60 day plans may choose this plan to continue learning other skills they did not get in the shorter plans like coping, refining social skills, developing meaningful relationships without the addiction.

Alcohol RecoveryThe 90 days treatment begins much like the 30 and 60 day treatments of intense detox, relieving the body of the toxins to bring the person back to the normal levels while getting the unhealthy chemicals out that could take up to two weeks.  This is done in a medically supervised environment by professionals to ensure that everyone is safe in case any side effects arise. After detox the rehabilitation begins with individual and group therapy sessions, this will be the communication and sharing the events that one has experienced. 

This also helps to communicate with others in the same position or maybe further along the treatment program to validate that this is not just happening to the addict.  In therapy, an addict will learn new skills to cope with their daily life issues using different types of therapies to help the addict physically and mentally and spiritually.  These therapies could be yoga therapy, sometimes this includes learning to have meditation time, yoga therapy helps with the mind and body to a line together. 

The 90 day plans will have you living on site while going through their treatment plans much like in the 60 day treatment plan. The addict will attend individual and group therapy sessions by trained substance abuse counselors who will teach you the Addiction Treatment Centerskills of recognizing and dealing with the triggers or situations.  Learn how to avoid them and recognize the ones that might lead you to a relapse. In group therapy sessions you will get support from others with addiction and who are going through the same daily challenges that you are dealing with.  This can involve some family sessions where the addict and the family members will learn how to trust each other again. The addict and family members will learn how to express their feelings and thoughts on a healthy level by including them in the recovery process.

Most all plans have different approaches but will include many of these method IGT integrated group therapy deals with the addicts that might have two problems one physical like addiction and behavioral like bipolar disordering a group setting. Some will use the 12 step program methods and /or scientific methods.

The 90 day treatment plan is the usual plans most addicts choose who are addicted to cocaine, heroin, alcohol, etc. This inpatient plan helps addicts to have hands on time with the medical and therapeutic staff 24 hours a day for 90 days.  These addictions did not occur overnight so learning new skills to not fall back into doing drugs or drink alcohol by learning more coping skills to add to their arsenal to live a sober and drug free life takes time, to become a normal skill or decision to choose on a daily basis.  90 days is a lifestyle change.

Pacific Bay Recovery offers top treatment for addiction in San Diego, including all types of substance abuse. Whether it’s prescription or illicit drug abuse, or alcohol, the treatment center provides compassionate, effective treatment that works well a vast majority of the time. Call us today for a free consultation to learn more!

 

Facts on Drug Rehab Treatment from a San Diego Addiction Treatment Center

Drug addiction, in most cases, goes untreated. According to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) National Survey on Drug and Health, 9.4 percent of the US population aged12 or older had to be treated for drug or Detox Center San Diegoalcohol abuse problem in 2007. Of those people surveyed, 2.4 million individuals (10.4 percent) needed treatment or received treatment at a specialty rehabilitation (rehab) center by addiction professionals.

Therefore, 20.8 million people (8.4 percent of the US population 12 or older) needed to be treated for a drug or alcohol abuse problem and probably didn’t receive it. This survey is available online at www.samhsa.gov and from NIDA at 877-643-2644.

Addiction – A Treatable Disease

Addiction is a treatable disease that affects the body and brain in many ways. All treatments aren’t for every person, so you must be assessed by addiction professionals on a continuing basis to make sure the treatment is working for you. However, treatment might need to be changed, depending on how you are responding. You may require therapy that is both medical and psychological, depending how you are doing. For most people that are addicted, they just can’t stop using because they want to. They will not feel good until the drugs are out of the system and the brain and body quits craving the substance.

Because of these drug cravings, some treatments professionals use legal medications to help with the process for the individual who is addicted to make them better without feeling sick. The drug detoxification (detox) treatment process does work for individuals who seek out treatment and stick to the plan can change. However, this process usually is long and hard. alcohol rehab san diego Relapse is inevitable in the beginning, but the main factor of success is to get right back on track with your treatment when relapse occurs Re-teaching oneself to do something different is hard when you have engaged in negative behavior for such a long time. You many slip up many times, but you need to stay the road and continue treatment for many years before you are better, especially when the life you led for a long time was centered on finding drugs and putting them into the body.

Costs of Drug Abuse

Substance abuse costs the U.S. $510 billion dollars each year, and these costs are related to specialty alcohol and drug services, medical consequences, lost productivity due to illness and injury, and legal costs. Research shows that for every dollar spent on prevention and early treatment programs, two to ten dollars could be saved in health costs, criminal and juvenile justice costs, educational costs, and lost productivity.

Treatment has been shown scientifically to help addicted patients of drugs abuse to avoiding relapse and recover their lives. What people learn during rehab treatment is to stay clear of drugs or alcohol by building positive healthy habits that help a person cope so they don’t relapse. Recovery is a long road, but it is possible.

Pacific Bay Recovery offers the best addiction treatment in San Diego. This includes all types of substance abuse such as alcohol, prescription drugs and illicit drugs as well. Call us today for help!

Resources

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Drug Facts: Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction. Retrieved from: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/treatment-approaches-drug-addiction.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) (2014). Justification of Estimates for Appropriations Committee. Retrieved from: http://www.samhsa.gov/Budget/FY2012/SAMHSA-FY11CJ.pdf

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What Surgeries are associated with Chronic Opioid Use?

Chronic opioid use contributes to the economic burden related to health care. Not much is known about what increases a person’s risk for opioid use or the potential risk factors for chronic use. Researchers have found that certain surgical procedures can increase the risk for narcotic pain medication usage.

The Opioid Abuse Epidemic

Pain relievers became plentiful in the 1990s, and during that time, drug overdose death rates in the United Drug Rehab San DiegoStates grew. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), since the 90s, overdose deaths related to drugs have more than tripled. In America, 78 people die every day from opioid overdose.

According to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), there were 137 million prescriptions of hydrocodone written in 2011 alone, and 5 million people in America admit to using opioid pain relievers. Of the users of pain medicine, 17% admit that they do not use the medicines for a medical purpose. The majority of overdose deaths occur in patients who are given prescriptions from their doctors, which are based on medical guidelines.

Results from a Recent Clinical Study

Researchers at Stanford University Medical School in California recently conducted a research study and found a link between common surgical procedures and increased use of opioid drugs. According to the study, patients who had never taken opioid pain relievers were at an increased risk for use of these drugs after surgery. Those who were at an increased risk for chronic use of narcotic pain medicine included:

  • Men
  • Older people
  • Persons with a history of substance abuse or depression

According to the lead author of the study, Eric Sun MD PhD, the patients were not using opioids before their surgery, but after a year, many had become chronic users. The study was based on evaluation of over 640,000 opioid-naïve surgical patients and more than 18 million opioid-naïve nonsurgical patients. In the study, chronic opioid use was defined as filling 10 or more prescriptions or using a 120-day supply of pain medicine in the first year following surgery. For nonsurgical patients, chronic opioid use is filling 10 or more prescriptions of more than 120 days’ supply after the surgery date.

Surgeries associated with Chronic Opioid Use

There were 11 common surgeries associated with chronic opioid use:

  • Total knee arthroplasty
  • Total hip arthroplastyknee replacement
  • Laparoscopic cholecystectomy
  • Open cholecystectomy
  • Laparoscopic appendectomy
  • Open appendectomy
  • Functional endoscopic sinus surgery
  • Cataract surgery
  • Cesarean delivery
  • Simple mastectomy
  • Transurethral prostate resection

According to the recent study, the incidence of chronic opioid use ranged from 0.12% for cesarean delivery to 1.4% for total knee arthroplasty. The baseline increase incidence for nonsurgical patients was 0.14%. The authors also found that the patients were usually between the ages of 18 and 64 years of age. Odds ratios in the study ranged from 1.28 for Cesarean delivery to 5.10 for total knee arthroplasty.

Addiction Statistics

  • Medicaid enrollees receive pain medicine prescriptions at twice the rate of those persons without Medicaid.
  • Around 80% of pain relievers are prescribe by 20% of doctors.
  • Prescribed medicines account for most overdose incidence.
  • Between 2000 and 2010, sales for opioids to hospitals, pharmacies, and doctors increased fourfold.
  • In 2009, abuse of pain medicines accounted from 475,000 emergency department visits.

Resources

Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2016). Opioid drugs. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/drugoverdose/opioids/index.html

Manchikanti L, Helm S, Fellows B, et al. (2012). Opioid epidemic in the United States. Pain Physician, 15(3), 9-38.

Sun EC, Darnell B, Baker LC et al. (2015). Incidence of and Risk Factors for Chronic Opioid Use Among Opioid-Naive Patients in the Postoperative Period. JAMA Int Med. Published online July 11, 2016. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.3298

The Cycle of Addiction – Info from a Top Rehab Center in San Diego

With addiction, the addict becomes caught up in a viscous cycle, and he/she is unable to break from of the addiction. Understanding this cycle of addiction helps you realize the causes and issues associated with this disease.

  1. Obsession

The first stage of the addiction cycle is obsession. You experience an intense euphoria (reward) with drug use. The substances help you cope with problems and stress. With obsession, you want to re-experience that first high over and over, and nothing else in life offers any relief or pleasure. In addition, you neglect your family and self with the obsession stage, drugs becoming your number one priority.Detox Center San Diego

  1. Insanity Develops

Drug abuse interferes with the brain’s communication system. You do not make logical judgements, rational decisions, and sane choices when using a drug or alcohol. In addition, it is hard to distinguish reality from fantasy, which is a form of denial. Other manifestations of insanity include:

  • Selfishness – You want to feel normal and could care less who is hurt.
  • Use of defense mechanisms – These include anything to rationalize the consequences of drug addiction, such as manipulations, dishonesty, justifications, minimization, and intellectualization.
  • Grandiosity – Thinking you are special, different, smarter, and better than other people.
  • Chaos – Your life is unmanageable and chaotic. You cannot rely on yourself to make a rational decision.
  1. Cravings Develop

Drug abuse changes the brain’s structure and function. Brain nerve cells receive, send, and process information that is abnormal, and the brain is actually physically dependent on the drug. Slowly, the brain requires the drug to function normally. In a recent study, researchers conducted a large review of the impact of opioids on the endocrine system. They found that these substances induced central suppression of secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GRH), which resulting in fatigue, depression, infertility, low libido, anxiety, and loss of muscle strength. They concluded that non-opioid management of pain be used to prevent these problems.

  1. Tolerance Develops

The brain adapts to the substance and builds a tolerance. This means you require more and more of the drug to feel normal. Tolerance causes loss Rehab Center San Diegoof emotions, problems with feelings, and changes in morals. With tolerance, you are no longer able to respond to the drug in a way a normal person would. The development of tolerance is not addiction, but many drugs that cause tolerance also lead to addiction. Opioids bind to certain brain receptors, triggering the inhibition of the enzyme adenylate cyclase. This causes abnormal brain cell function.

  1. Experience Hopelessness

With addiction, you are not aware of the disease. You think you are bad or just a weak person, causing feelings of guilt, shame, and regret. Drug use gives you the illusion of power, and you often make sincere attempts to not use again. Feelings of hopelessness develop, causing you to continue using as an escape.

  1. Reaching Rock Bottom

In recovery, rock bottom is a phrase use to describe total loss. You lose your job, your family, your assets, and sometimes, your freedom. The cycle is repeated over and over again until you do reach rock bottom. Ending up in an institution or killing one’s self are examples of what could happen if you choose to continue with the cycle of addiction.

Call Pacific Bay Recovery for top addiction treatment in San Diego today!

Resources

Katz N & Mazer NA (2009). The impact of opioids on the endocrine system. Clinical Journal of Pain, 24(2), 170-175.

National Institute of Drug Abuse (2016). The Neurobiology of Drug Addiction. Retrieved from: https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/teaching-packets/neurobiology-drug-addiction/section-iii-action-heroin-morphine/6-definition-tolerance

Why a 12 Step Program is NOT enough for Addiction

It is estimated that 23 million people in the United States struggle with addiction to some type of substance. Alcohol Anonymous (AA) and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) are considered the standard treatment for a recovering addict. These programs are based on the 12 steps, and were introduced in 1938. However, experts now know that a 12 step program is not enough to treat addiction, mainly because they do not include both psychological and medical components.

The Science behind Addiction

Science now offers us many insights into the concept of addiction. Researchers now know it has a genetic component. In addition, environmental Detox Center San Diegofactors lead to addiction, such as influences and triggers. The brain activity changes when someone uses a substance. Drugs contain chemicals that excite the brain’s communication system and disrupt nerve cell signals. This involves overstimulating the reward circuit in the brain and imitating natural chemical messengers.

Heroin, opiates, and marijuana are chemically similar to neurotransmitters, and they fool the brain’s receptors. Cocaine and methamphetamine cause nerve cells to release dopamine in large amounts, and they prevent normal recycling of brain chemicals. The result is enhanced stimulation and a feeling of pleasure. An addict who abuses drugs can adapt to surges of dopamine, which in turn, reduces the person’s ability to enjoy anything in life that was previously pleasurable.

Medical and Psychological Treatment

With a non-12 step program, medical and psychological treatment is incorporated into the recovery process. Physicians, registered nurses, psychologists, and technicians all work together to help the client. In addition, medications are used to change brain chemistry, curb the cravings for drugs and/or alcohol, and eliminate painful withdrawal symptoms.

Alternatives to 12 Step Programs

  • Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) – This model has three goals: to teach you skill to care for the self, to teach you skills to help your partner of family member change, and to reduce the use of a substance.

 

  • SMART Recovery – This program provides free mutual self-help meetings to help individuals abstain from addictive behaviors. SMART recovery offers techniques for each person to build and maintain motivation, cope with urges, live a balanced life, and manage thoughts and behaviors.

 

  • Assisted Recovery – This involves the use of medications to stop the obsession and craving of drugs. Treatment and therapy involves individual counseling and group meetings. This helps clients learn how to deal with the underlying addiction issues.

 

Differences between Alternative Treatment and the 12 Step Approach

The differences usually fall into four categories. These are:Alcohol Recovery San Diego

 

  • Emphasis on internal control – A 12 step program emphasizes a person’s powerless over alcohol and other substances. Other rehab models reject this view and force the individual to have power in him- or herself to overcome the addiction.

 

  • Secularity – The 12 steps make references to God and prayer. Alternative forms of therapy use a secular approach, making the members feel more open and comfortable if they are agnostic, Muslim, Buddhist, or Wiccan.

 

  • Evolving approaches – SMART recovery and other options are developed using evidence-based research. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is used to change the person’s mindset regarding addiction.

 

  • Shedding life-long labels – With a 12 step program, the battle against addiction is considered lifelong, requiring constant vigilance and attendance to meetings. Alternative treatment views addiction as a short-term problem that can be overcome.

The top substance abuse rehab center in Southern California is Pacific Bay Recovery in San Diego. By combining all of these top rehab center traits, Pacific Bay has been able to achieve success rates three times the national average. Call us today at (858) 263-9700 for more information and visit us at pacificbayrecovery.com!