Drug and alcohol addiction affect millions every year. When the individual is able to overcome denial and agree to professional help and treatment, it is a big leap for them. However, it is important to know that there are various treatment plans available, based on your specific situation.
Some treatment programs are available as inpatient or residential programs while others are in an outpatient setting. To make the right choice, read on to understand who needs residential addiction rehab.
Residential or Inpatient Treatment
In residential rehabs, patients stay in the rehab during their treatment, where they receive round-the-clock care. These facilities often provide more comprehensive services to help their patients recover.
Residential treatment usually consists of a number of stages. Beginning with medical detox, patients are weaned off the drug under medical supervision. In the next stage, these patients start going through counseling and therapy to address what caused their addiction, in the first place. This may include learning life skills and building healthy habits.
On the other hand, outpatient treatment, provides this treatment in parts, when patients come for appointments and meetings.
Who needs Residential Addiction Rehab?
Residential treatment is always the better choice because the individual receives 24-hour care from compassionate professionals. It is easier to recover because the substance is not available, and the person can stay away from the triggers and stressors that pushed him/her towards addiction. The person can look forward to faster recovery.
However, this type of treatment may not be suitable for those, who do not have anyone to help them with their responsibilities, like kids at home, when they are at the rehab. These people can opt for the intensive outpatient treatment.
Remember that detox should be done under residential treatment to ensure safer recovery. Many withdrawal symptoms can be severe and it is not a good idea to detox at home.
Psilocybin is a psychoactive substance contained in several species of mushrooms, which are consumed recreationally. Psilocybin/mushrooms are categorized as psychedelic drugs (or hallucinogens) and are considered to be a Schedule I controlled substance without any indications for medical use by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration 2. However, there is some evidence to suggest that it may have some therapeutic utility for some conditions, such as depression. Approximately, 1.2 million people over the age of 12 have been reported to be users of hallucinogens, and young people with a co-occurring major depressive disorder have been found to be more likely to use hallucinogenic drugs than those without that diagnosis.
These mushrooms containing psilocybin are typically ingested or drank as a brewed beverage. They are hallucinogenic and people consume it to experience a “good trip”, which are vivid perceptual effects (visual and auditory hallucinations) and changes in perception of time. Sometimes, user experience a “bad trip”, which comprise negative experiences while under the influence, and can have lasting effects on the user. Other symptoms include detachment from reality or self, feeling of spiritual experiences, intense emotions, increased respiration, temperature, and blood pressure, heart palpitations, tremors, loss of appetite, dry mouth, sleep disturbances, nausea, blurred vision, dilated pupils, loss of coordination, paranoia, and in extreme cases, psychosis. These users are prone to injury or death as a result of poor judgment while under the influence of psilocybin. Furthermore, they are also at increased risk of poisoning and potential death from accidentally ingesting a misidentified, poisonous mushroom.
About 4.2% of the users experience what is known as the hallucinogen persisting perception disorder, which includes flashbacks or re-experiencing of psilocybin intoxication despite having abstained from magic mushroom use for an extended period of time.
Persistent use of psilocybin can indeed result in addiction. The signs of psilocybin addiction include craving for mushrooms and spending a lot of time and effort seeking them and using them despite failure to fulfill personal obligations, or having a concern for social/interpersonal problems or health issues. These abusers also repeatedly fail to cut down or quit using mushrooms.
Psilocybin/mushroom treatment becomes necessary for someone who abuses it to the point that they become out of touch with reality. The treatment plan is targeted at weaning them from psilocybin/mushroom dependency. The good news is that psilocybin is not that addictive, so there is no major chemical/pharmacologic dependence; however, the psychological dependence is quite strong. Things get complicated when there is polysubstance abuse. This is not uncommon in these users, as they tend to use other agents as well, such as alcohol, benzodiazepines, stimulants or opioids. Such users would always require a rigorous detox program and rehabilitation in order to have a full recovery. There are various programs especially designed to address not only these addiction issues but also the underlying psychological issues that predispose them to addiction in the first place.
Hashish is a plant derivative substance, extracted from the trichomes, flowers, and fragments of leaves and stems of the cannabis plant. It contains tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is the same active ingredients found in marijuana, but at a much higher concentration (up to 15% in hashish as compared to 5% in marijuana). Hash oil is another substance produced by solvent extraction of hashish/marijuana and ends up having even a higher dose of THC.
Based on the way it is prepared, it comes in various forms and preparations. Hash oil comes as a golden syrupy-like substance. Hash is typically consumed by smoking or ingestion, but the effects are much faster and stronger when smoked due to faster entry into the bloodstream through the lungs. How does hashish work? The active substance of hashish, THC acts by binding to cannabinoid receptors in the neurons, which results in physical, emotional, and cognitive effects.
While many studies have shown that there are medicinal effects of cannabis products, particularly a substance known as cannabidiol, it should be noted that the United States Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) still considers cannabis a Schedule I controlled substance, meaning that it is considered to have no medicinal use and a high potential for abuse.
So what does hash abuse look like? Hashish is typically smoked in pipes or bongs. Some users add hashish to food or brew it in a tea, and other casual ways. However, given the potent concentration of THC present in hashish, it has a higher potential for addiction and more serious side effects as compared to marijuana. The typical signs and symptoms of hash addiction include euphoria, increased relaxation, hunger, sore throat, panic, paranoia, anxiety, tachycardia, hypertension, impaired coordination, lack of motivation, impaired concentration, and hallucinations.
Long-term effects of hash abuse include immunosuppression, respiratory issues from chronic lung damage, sexual dysfunction in males, cardiovascular issues, mental issues, etc. As expected, hashish users face significant social issues as well, such as job loss, financial issues, legal issues, strained relationships with spouses, children, and other loved ones, just to name a few.
The use of hashish among teens is disproportionately high. There are several reasons for that – most of them having to do that mainstream acceptance and legalization (in some states) of marijuana, and coupling hashish with it as a comparable alternative, which of course, it isn’t. There is a tendency is downplay the potential for abuse, physical dependence, and other harmful effects of hashish. The teens are even more susceptible to its deleterious effects because of their greater propensity for the development of a substance use disorder. They are also more susceptible to peer pressure and having an underlying ADHD or conduct disorder which increases their predilection for hashish addiction, further leading to polysubstance abuse.
Health awareness and education play an important role in helping teenagers understand the hazards of hashish use. Preventing hashish addiction can also prevent falling prey to other even more serious drugs such as heroin and cocaine.
Sniffing glue is a dangerous addiction. Glue is easily available and provides a degree of euphoria (feeling high) that gets people, especially younger individuals (teenagers) hooked. Solvent glue is categorized as an Inhalant, among others including aerosol sprays, cleaners, etc. There are various forms of solvent glues available, such as model glue and rubber cement.
While it might appear to be a casual activity, it can actually be life-threatening. But even if the result isn’t fatal, it can still lead to brain damage and serious lung injury. The degree of bodily harm this addictive behavior inflicts depends on the type of glue used and the frequency and amount of it inhaled. Some of the symptoms that can help identify someone who is sniffing glue include the chemical odor on clothes and breath, rash around the mouth, headaches, dizziness, nausea and vomiting, mood swings and belligerence, decline in thinking skills, concentration, and decision-making ability, loss of interest in normal activities, lack of interest in personal relationships, numbness and tingling in hands and feet, loss of coordination, fatigue, hearing loss, apathy, impaired judgment, and loss of consciousness.
Some of the most significant organ damage that can result from sniffing glue include:
Lung injury: Sniffing glue can lead to acute respiratory failure, which is a potentially fatal condition. It occurs by direct damage to lung tissue by the chemicals in the glue, which then limits the necessary amount of oxygen being absorbed into the blood. If other substances are being used as well, they can further promote lung damage in these users, and lead to irreversible chronic respiratory failure.
Brain damage: Inhalants have been known to cause various degrees of brain damage. The most widely implicated chemicals are toluene and naphthalene, which can damage the myelin sheath, and cause potentially severe and irreversible damage to brain function.
Cardiac injury: Sniffing inhalants can also cause damage to the heart, specifically its electric circuitry. This can lead to an irregular heartbeat, also known as arrhythmia, and can potentially lead to heart failure. There is a condition known as sudden sniffing death syndrome (SSDS), which may occur even after a single use of an inhalant.
In addition to the above, inhalant use can also cause liver and renal damage.
The treatment for inhalant use is emergent. If the user is found to be unconscious, call 911 immediately and remove them from the toxic environment they were found in. The focus of the emergent treatment is to get the person to be stable, followed by rehab therapy. Rehab therapy is focused on identifying factors that led to the use of inhalants, and help address any underlying causes, such as mental health disorders. While the acute rehab treatment is inpatient, the patient is switched to an outpatient setting once stable enough. It should be followed by relapse prevention programs and support groups to help the recovered patient stay away from the conditions that lead to inhalant use through continued support.
Are celebrities more prone to addictions than the rest of us mortal human beings who must survive everyday stressors like paying our bills and getting that stain out of the carpet? This is a fair question. And we don’t have an exact answer for you.
But one author-therapist spoke up on the topic, stating clearly that celebrity life includes enormous pressures that most people never experience. Yes, we mortals have severe stress points in our lives. And, yes, the frequent lists on occupations and addictions often names doctors, miners, policemen as very vulnerable to alcoholism and drug abuse. Other lists name forest management, farming, fishermen and sales jobs as high on the list of vulnerable occupations. Seldom do you see celebrities on these lists.
But think of the pressure to be a movie actor, especially one who is the star of the show. If the movie bombs, seldom do the newspapers announce the writer’s career is imperiled. But they frequently write, “if the actor doesn’t find a moneymaker soon to put on his or her resume, their career is cooked.”
What’s the problem here? Stress is in the eye of the beholder to a certain degree. If you like chaos, then chaos is not so stressful for you. And, where does this leave doctors? If they make a mistake, the results could be life-changing – devastating. Tell me an actor has more stress than that?
Los Angeles-based Dr. Jenn Mann, an author of a book on relationships, says that actors are doubly vulnerable simply because they are sensitive, creative and put their creativity out there for the entire world to see. In addition, companies invest millions, often hundreds of millions of dollars, in that actor or actress, which puts a lot of heavy expectations on the thespian’s shoulders.
Big Time Pressure
“You take that sort of personality that is already vulnerable to these issues and then you put them in a situation where there is enormous pressure to perform,” Hollywood Life quoted Dr. Mann as saying. “That is unbelievable pressure that very few people can even comprehend in the regular world, because a lot of people go, ‘oh, you’re just getting paid so much money, who cares?” But this is also putting yourself out there and your work and your future,” she said.
What about Money?
Ah, remember money? That’s supposed to be the root of all evil and sometimes it certainly is. What do you do if you’re having an anxiety attack because you have to perform at work the next day – as a doctor, an actor or a businessperson? You might have a drink to calm your nerves. This can become a habit with anyone who lets the alcohol begin to take control. There may be genetic factors involved. You don’t need too much of a push before alcoholism can be diagnosed.
The actor that sparked the interview in Hollywood Life was unknown to me and his name is irrelevant, but he was one of the lead actors to a mega-huge television show. The interesting points of his case included his descriptions in previous interviews about how the months when his character was getting tons and tons of media attention were his worse moments on the show.
Wait — don’t actors live for that kind of attention? Well, yes and no. It’s a double-edged sword. The attention means you will be eligible for a part in another high paying show. But it also means your every move is subjected to public scrutiny, both on the screen and off.
Meanwhile, all that money not only represents pressure but an opportunity. Everyone wants to be your best pal, be part of your life, buy you a drink or have you buy them one … money, money, money. When your paycheck has six zeroes on it, temptations are affordable. Do you want to take the edge off? Six zeroes can certainly make that happen.
In fact, as Dr. Mann said, when you reach “a certain level of stardom,” you suddenly become surrounded by handlers, people who want your attention, your signature, your time, your endorsement. Life begins to swirl and drugs and alcohol can certainly make that swirling go away for a while before the swirling becomes spiraling out of control.
Make A Call
Are you or someone you love suffering from addiction issues? If so, professional help is a phone call away. Call Pacific Bay Recovery in San Diego at 858-263-9700. Call soon and break the cycle.
Recovery is a long journey, and maintaining long-term sobriety take effort, motivation, and self-control. Here are some highly effective relapse prevention tips that can keep you on your path of recovery.
Know your triggers
Relapse is part of recovery, and it is wise to accept this as normal experience in your life. Relapse presents the opportunity to learn to avoid future mistakes. Developing self-awareness and self-control can help you identify triggers. Once you know your triggers, you will have the power to avoid them.
Go to therapy.
Ongoing counseling and therapy help you maintain sobriety. It can help you resolve any negative feelings and thoughts that push you back towards alcohol use.
Have a relapse prevention plan in place
With your therapist’s help, create a plan that will help you manage recovery, as well as prevent relapse while keeping you on track.
Learn to cope with cravings and triggers
Understand that your cravings and urges are normal in early recovery. When you repress them, they become stronger. Learn how to take control of your thoughts and emotions.
Avoid high risk situations with alternative strategies. Here are some useful tools to prevent relapse –
Develop a hobby, sport or other activity
Encourage yourself with positive self-talk
Use meditation as a healthy way to cope with stress and relax
If a loved one is addicted to opiates, you obviously want to help them quit the drug. But to help the person do so, you first need to understand how addiction works.
What is Addiction?
The foremost thing you should understand is – Addiction is NOT a choice, it’s a disease. Initially, a person takes drugs to experience a high but with repeated use, their brain and body develop a necessity for the drug, in order to feel normal again.
The cycle of addiction begins with the first use. Opiates, like heroin, morphine, or codeine create a sense of euphoria. People want to continue feeling good and go back for more. Over time and with repetition, the brain adapts and now needs the drug to feel normal. Meanwhile, the body begins to deteriorate. The time, it takes to become addicted, varies from person to person.
A person is dependent on the drug when they miss a dose and experience withdrawal symptoms. With time, the person needs more of the drug to feel the same effects. This is tolerance – another brain adaptation.
To tell if your loved one is addicted or dependent, consider the following questions.
Are the person’s responsibilities at risk due to opiate use?
Does the person crave opiates?
Does the person end up in dangerous situations due of opiate use?
Does the person spend a great deal of time thinking about, obtaining, or using drugs?
Has your loved one continued using opiates despite work, health, or relationship problems?
Has the person ever tried to quit but failed?
If the answer to any of these questions is a ‘yes’, addiction may be present.
Most addicts deny addiction and fear quitting because –
they fear withdrawal
they are scared of dealing with pain
Opiates are the most addictive drugs known and most addicts began taking opiates to combat chronic pain.
The first step is to seek medical help. Without professional help of a reputable treatment program, it may be difficult to detox and achieve long-term sobriety.
To talk to your loved one, about seeking professional help, here are some critical things to consider –
get some advice before you begin
plan communication in advance
prepare as if anything can happen
provide a solution for recovery
Medical detox is the first step in treatment. During detox, opiates leave the body.
While unpleasant withdrawal symptoms may occur but they can be treated as they occur. In fact, doctors can manage the withdrawal symptoms with medications and psychological support.
Treatment begins with assessment of the extent of addiction, the overall health condition and history of addictive behavior. The addiction professional will then create an individualized treatment plan ideal for the person’s needs.
The treatment of opiate addiction may include pain relief without the use of opiates, psychotherapy, counseling and life skills training.
Social detoxification is a non-medical type of detox program and involves the individual stopping the use of the drugs entirely while under the care of treatment professionals. While being a social method, it involves professionals providing the patient with emotional and psychological support throughout the withdrawal process without any therapeutic intervention.
This method has shown some degree of success but it’s not without its challenges. There remains a significant potential for a withdrawal syndrome and given the lack of a proper setting, may be difficult to manage. The spectrum of withdrawal symptoms varies depending on the specific drug and can be severe and potentially life-threatening. Furthermore, there is a chance that a user who is going through detox in this method may relapse in an effort to relieve their symptoms and cravings for the drug. What’s worse yet is that these individuals have a propensity to overdose when relapsing, making it an even more critical situation.
Another aspect of substance use disorder recovery management to keep in mind is that significantly long period of abstinence leads to a marked decrease in the patient’s tolerance level, which can be extremely dangerous as it predisposes to inadvertent potentially lethal overdosing.
Social detox approaches are also poorly equipped to address potential development of psychological issues over the course of withdrawal. These include mental health issues such as depression, suicidal ideation or attempts, anxiety, delirium, and insomnia. Apart from psychological issues, medical complications may also arise during withdrawal. Therefore, it is not advised to perform social detox for the management of withdrawal from alcohol, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, or opioids.
Conversely, these patients need to properly diagnosed and a personalized detox and recovery program needs to be designed keeping their personal, medical and social needs in mind. Medical detox provides patients with a structured environment, proper medication and full ancillary support to address all aspects of substance use disorder recovery. These management programs can handle serious conditions such as seizures, which is a withdrawal symptom for a number of commonly abused substances. Furthermore, if the patient were to become delirious you are able to provide optimal care right away. Confused, agitated states can lead to accidents, erratic behavior, and possibly violence. Being unsupervised in social settings while in that condition is dangerous.
In many of these settings, pharmacologic intervention is necessary, whether it is for the pain, other symptoms or for choosing a drug of lesser strength to avoid a dangerous withdrawal syndrome. This is true for heroin addiction for which methadone is used. Methadone is a full opioid agonist that attaches to and activates opioid receptors in the brain, which decreases cravings and reduces unpleasant withdrawal symptoms. This requires careful monitoring and assessment on a regular basis and can only be dispensed by opioid treatment programs (OTPs). Buprenorphine is another such example where a partial opioid agonist is given to produce a less pronounced opioid effect than a full agonist, such as methadone. Suboxone is a formula containing a combination of buprenorphine and naloxone, a medication that blocks opioid effects.
Using these therapeutic options can be necessary for the right patient given his/her situation and administering these drugs requires a controlled environment and supervision by experienced staff, none of which a social detox method provides.
There are various types of drug detox programs depending upon the drug or substance of use. These methods can be very effective if chosen for the right condition. In addition to the type of the drug of abuse, other factors that play a role include the dose taken at the time the patient starts detox, the duration of addiction, and if there is polysubstance abuse determine the most appropriate type of detox. Some of the detox methods include “Cold-Turkey” detox, short-term medicated detox, long-term medicated detox, etc.
The “cold turkey” detox method entails stopping the use of all drugs with no pharmacologic assistance and with only medical care available for emergency situations. These patients experience the full brunt of the withdrawal symptoms with no help from supportive therapy. That makes it a feasible option for less intense addictions but for the rest, the cold turkey detox is not suitable and can be counterproductive, in fact dangerous.
Medical detox, on the other hand, is different because patients who opt for medical detox stop taking their substance of use but as they experience withdrawal symptoms, they are able to take certain medications for a limited period of time to ease discomfort. This is why this program is better tolerated and can handle slightly more intense forms of addictions. It is important to note that the medications administered/prescribed in this program are primarily for symptomatic relief, such as non-addictive sleep medication for insomnia or anxiety. The main idea is to minimize the degree of discomfort as these patients are detoxing.
If an alcoholic is undergoing medical detox, they are commonly given benzodiazepines to alleviate anxiety, jitteriness, insomnia, and to treat or prevent seizures, and they have a cross-tolerance with alcohol. However, in order to treat the use of opioid drugs such as heroin and prescription opioids, these medications have to be taken longer-term, especially partial agonists, such as methadone or the drug combination buprenorphine and naloxone (Suboxone). But over time, as the detox continues, they’ll often require lower doses of medication until they’re eventually drug-free.
It is important to make sure that first of all, the diagnosis is correctly made, and underlying medical conditions are addressed, then the right type of detox program is chosen. Regardless of the type of detox program chosen, it has to be done under the supervision of a medical professional.
Both these detox types can be carried out with the patient being at home, but it may not be the best option. The reasons for that are that it may not be entirely safe, given the risk of severe withdrawal symptoms or relapse with an overdose. It is also less effective given the higher chance of noncompliance. Overall, professional detox is safer, better tolerated and more effective in the end. Choosing the right professional detox is key, however. And at Pacificbayrecovery.com, we provide highly professional, evidence-based care to these patients.
While it is true that men in the United States report higher rates of drug abuse (7.7% of American men vs. 5% of American women), substance use disorder is a significant problem for women as well. A woman goes to the emergency room after abusing prescription painkillers every 3 minutes in the USA. There are approximately 15.8 million adult women per year reported to be using illicit drugs. The most commonly used substance is alcohol (33.3%), followed by heroin (15.3%), marijuana (14.6%), prescription painkillers (13.8%), cocaine (9.3%), methamphetamine/amphetamines (8.6%), etc.
Women have a different clinical presentation of their substance use disorder. They tend to have a shorter history of abusing alcohol and drugs than men, yet they are likely to develop more severe physical, emotional, behavioral, and social problems compared to men. The spectrum of symptoms and signs may also differ between women and men in any given substance use disorder. Women are also more likely than men to suffer from comorbid mental health issues, including depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), panic attacks, eating disorders and particularly polysubstance abuse. It has also been noted that many women begin abusing drugs as a means of self-medication for these disorders.
All patients of substance use disorder, regardless of their gender, suffer from social problems, financial issues, mental and behavioral health disorders, malnutrition, hepatitis, AIDS, and other sexually transmitted diseases. However, female patients have these additional unique challenges, including having a higher rate of adverse physical effects on their cardiovascular system. They are also more likely to overdose and more sensitive to certain substances. Women with drug and alcohol addiction may be more likely to face certain financial and legal problems. This becomes even more problematic when they have children. Women with substance abuse problems may be more susceptible to rape, given their vulnerable state overall. A recent study reported that approximately 73% of female drug abusers that were surveyed had a history of rape, of whom 35% were raped while under the influence of drugs or alcohol. To makes matters worse, women engaging in substance abuse may face unplanned pregnancies as a result of poor safe sex practices due to lack of awareness/resources or while under the influence.
Female patients are also prone to pregnancy complications, leading to negative outcomes for both the mother and the developing baby. These women who abuse drugs during pregnancy are more likely to experience high blood pressure, migraines, and seizures. Their fetuses are prone to having low birth weight, birth defects, developmental delays, etc. There is a 2-3 times higher risk of stillbirths in these cases. All of these problems are made worse by several barriers to treatment faced by women. To begin with, women are generally less likely to seek treatment than men, which may be in part due to social stigmas, childcare responsibilities, financial difficulties, transportation issues, lack of interpersonal or familial support, just to name a few.
Special care should be provided to female patients in order to improve compliance, comfort and overall chance of recovery. Some female-specific supportive approaches include onsite childcare, parenting classes, special care for pregnant/nursing mothers or those who are victims of rape, domestic violence, etc. In addition, vocational training, income support, housing assistance, social services, family and couples therapy are also very useful in helping these patients.